The Mysterious Fate of Lena Smith: Part Five

Unfortunately, it is very likely that the story that appeared in the Boston Daily Globe1 was not entirely truthful.  At no point was the severity of Lena’s condition in doubt.  The poison she had taken, mercury bichloride, was well known and highly toxic.

Mercury bichloride, also known as corrosive sublimate, is an extremely poisonous mercury salt with the chemical formula HgCl2. Currently, it is a highly restricted substance, utilized in the manufacture of PVC and as a depolarizer in batteries.2

However, during Lena’s lifetime, it was frequently used in households across the country.  Agricultural columns in newspapers recommended using a dilute solution to disinfect tools after removing diseased portions of trees affected by blight, in order to avoid spreading contagion to healthy limbs.3 A few tablets of bichloride of mercury dissolved in a bottle of alcohol created a remedy for bedbugs.4 For cleaning a sick room or disposing of the “bodily discharges” of an ill person, a solution containing one teaspoon of corrosive sublimate and one teaspoon of permanganate of potash per gallon of fresh water was advised. Diluted by half, this fluid could be used to cleanse the hands.5

corrosive sublimate
Pharmaceutical Label (found on Flickr: <https://www.flickr.com/photos/hadesigns/2275933529&gt; )

Given all these legitimate uses, it was not difficult for the average Joe to obtain mercury bichloride tablets. All he had to do was walk in to his local drugstore and request them.

And purchase them, he did.  Following a highly publicized case of accidental poisoning in 1913, there was a significant upswing in the number of suicides in which corrosive sublimate was the method used.

In an issue of the Archives of Internal Medicine, a peer-reviewed medical journal, published in November 1915, two New York doctors examined the frequency of these cases.  According to their article, 155 suicides by mercuric chloride had been recorded in the previous 25 years.  Nearly one-half of those incidents (73) had occurred during the two years since the notorious Walker case.6

corrosive sublimate 2
Atlanta Constitution, 25 May 1913, p 19 col 4

Perhaps more realistic coverage of his gruesome death would have deterred copycats.  Instead, newspaper articles glorified his drawn-out passing:

BANKER CHEERFUL IN FACE OF DEATH

Poisoned Macon Man Sinks Into Unconsciousness.

TRIES TO COMFORT WIFE.

Sensation of Dying Not as Unpleasant as Pictured, He Tells Her Ere Stupor Comes.

Macon, Ga., May 22. — B. Sanders Walker, the young Macon banker, whose remarkable fight against death from bichloride of mercury poisoning has puzzled physicians, lapsed into unconsciousness.

His physicians believe he will probably die in this condition. He had been conscious since taking the poison by mistake a week ago.

“If this be dying, then none need fear its terrors.”

Walker had made this characteristically cheerful reflection earlier as he vainly begged his nurse to tell him exactly what had been said at a conference of physicians in a corner of his bedchamber.

Walker had begged his physicians to allow him to talk with him family and friends. He said he had no fear of ill consequences. To his wife, struggling bravely to bear up, Walker constantly offered words of encouragement.

“The sensation of dying is not as unpleasant as it is generally pictured,” he told her.

Tuesday night Walker’s physicians believed the end was near. The patient, however, steadily assured them he was determined to live. After an all-night fight with death Walker rallied slightly.

Although warned from the first that death undoubtedly awaited him. Walker consistently maintained buoyant spirits. He had rallied again Wednesday and was the least perturbed of any in his room then.

While conscious and suffering little or no discomfort, he has been unable to grasp the situation which physicians said confronted him. The slow work of the deadly poison had failed to shake Walker’s belief that he would recover. His high spirits, it is believed, had much to do with his resisting the effects of the drug.

While unable to fully account for Walker’s remarkable vitality, some of the physicians partly attributed his successful resistance to the poison to the fact that he emitted a portion of the bichloride of mercury tablet soon after it was swallowed.

It was this which alarmed the banker and caused him to call a physician, who rushed to the Walker home and pumped out the contents of the banker’s stomach. The physician’s arrival, however, was not before the poison had taken sufficient effect to paralyze the kidneys.

All of the members of Walker’s immediate family are gathered at his home. Every precaution is being taken to prevent the patient from becoming unduly excited. Only his wife, the attending physician and nurses are permitted to enter his room.

Telegrams containing suggestions for treatment still are being received at the Walker home from every section of the country.7

Reading this article, one would think that after taking mercury bichloride, you might float painlessly off to a peaceful oblivion, lingering just long enough for loved ones to fawn over you, regretting any moment they might have caused you pain.  As Lena would discover, this notion could not be further from the truth.


1 “Lena Smith, Discouraged, Takes Poison Tablets”, Boston Daily Globe, 21 Sep 1917, p 4 col 2.
2 “Mercury(II) chloride,” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Mercury(II)_chloride&oldid=802982285&gt; (accessed 8 Oct 2017).
3 “Fire Blight,” Las Cruces Rio Grande Republican, 20 Jul 1915, p 3 col 4.
4 “How to Get Rid of House Pests,” Altoona Mirror (Altoona, PA), 22 Jul 1915, p 3 col 3.
5 “How to Disinfect a Room After Contagious Diseases,” Danville Republican (Danville, IL), 25 Jan 1917, p 4 col 3.
6 Southern Medical Journal, Vol. 9 Issues 1-6. Southern Medical Association: 1916. Treatment of Poisoning by Mercuric Chlorid, p 279. <https://books.google.com/books?id=ZlA9AQAAMAAJ&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false&gt;
7 “Banker Cheerful in Face of Death,” Gettysburg Times, 22 May 1913, p 2 col 6.

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The Mysterious Fate of Lena Smith: Part Four

According to his WWI draft card1, Officer John Marena was based out of Station 10 in Roxbury.  As part of the Historic American Buildings Survey, the Library of Congress holds photographs of the old station building2, which was one of the first municipal buildings constructed after the annexation of Roxbury in 1868.

station 10
Station 10, located at 1170 Columbus Avenue, Roxbury, Massachusetts

The station was located on Columbus Avenue, between the intersection with Tremont Street (William Pynchon Square) and that with Roxbury Street (Hanley Square).3

police station no 10

The station was just under a mile from Lena’s apartment, along Tremont Street and Huntington Avenue.

huntington-to-station-101.png

While police cars were in use in some parts of the country at this time, it is just as likely that Officer Marena might have been on horseback or even on foot.

Perhaps his mode of transportation was the reason that he directed Lena to the City Hospital, rather than taking her there himself.4  She may have taken a taxi or the electric streetcar the two and a half miles to City Hospital.

huntington to hospital

A recording of a streetcar journey through Boston, including part of Huntington Avenue, in 1903 is available to view on YouTube:

It is perhaps more likely that an ambulance was called.  Both the police force and the hospital itself had ambulances available for transport of patients.5

boston city hospital ambulance
“Taking Patient from Ambulance”, ca 1920. Boston City Hospital collection, Collection 7020.001, City of Boston Archives, Boston

Typically, at this period in time, the patient would receive no medical care prior to arrival at the hospital.  Those individuals hired to drive the ambulances were given no medical training.  A simple communication system existed, by which a call was made from the front gate of the hospital as the ambulance arrived.  A doctor would be summoned to meet the incoming ambulance when it pulled up to the building.6

Boston City Hospital, seen below, was built in the early 1860s on the site of the Agricultural Fair Grounds on the South End of Boston.  The location was not ideal, as the land flooded at high tide.  A massive amount of gravel was carted in to the site in order to raise the average ground level by seven feet.7

boston city hospital
Boston City Hospital in 19038

The hospital was originally founded to provide medical care to those stricken by poverty, who could not otherwise afford treatment.  Paying patients were, of course, also accepted.  Semi-private rooms and other services not typically provided by the hospital required payment.  Most patients were housed in wards like that seen below:

female ward
“Female Ward”, Boston City Hospital collection, Collection 7020.001, City of Boston Archives, Boston

It was here, in a ward like this, that Lena likely found herself on the night of September 20, 1917. And here where, no doubt to her great relief, she was informed that her condition was not considered serious.9


1 “U.S. World War I Draft Registration Cards, 1917-1918,” digital image, Ancestry.com (http://www.ancestry.com : accessed 5 October 2017), Suffolk County, Massachusetts, Dorchester City, Draft Board 21, John Vernal Marena entry, dated 12 September 1918; citing Selective Service System. World War I Selective Service System Draft Registration Cards, 1917-1918. Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration. M1509, 4,582 rolls.
2 Cheek, Richard. Police Station No. 10, 1170 Columbus Avenue, Boston, Suffolk County, MA. October 1979. Photograph. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. Accessed 3 Oct 2017. <http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/ma1206/&gt;
3 Bromley, George Washington, and Walter Scott Bromley. Atlas of the City of Boston: Roxbury. G.W. Bromley and Co., 1915.
4 “Lena Smith, Discouraged, Takes Poison Tablets”, Boston Daily Globe, 21 Sep 1917, p 4 col 2.
5 “A History of the Boston City Hospital from its Foundation Until 1904”. Boston: Municipal Printing Office, 1906.
6 Weaver, Jay. “The Origins of the City of Boston Ambulance Service.” 13 Oct 2013. <https://www.facebook.com/notes/boston-ems-incidents/the-origins-of-the-city-of-boston-ambulance-service-by-former-boston-paramedic-j/564361816970965/&gt;
7 “A History of the Boston City Hospital”.
8 E. Chickering & Co. Boston City Hospital, Harrison Ave., Boston, Mass. 1903. Photograph. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. Accessed 5 Oct 2017. <http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2007661080/&gt;
9 “Lena Smith, Discouraged, Takes Poison Tablets”.

The Mysterious Fate of Lena Smith: Part Three

Lena’s death record, seen below, listed her address as 873 Huntington Avenue.

lena smith death record

My sister and her husband, who live in Boston, were kind enough to visit the location so I could get a better idea of the surroundings.  The building in which Lena lived is still standing.  In 1917, the entrance was located within the lighter colored frame below:

873 huntington avenue

The entrances to both 873 and 877 have been closed off to create more living space.  Only a central door numbered 875 exists today, as seen in the following video (873 is on the right as the camera pans over the building):

It was from this doorway that, on the night of September 20, 1917, Lena burst forth:

About 10 o’clock last night Miss Lena Smith, aged 23, rushed from her room at 873 Huntington av, Roxbury, and stopped patrolman John Marena, exclaiming that she had swallowed three poison tablets.

Next Time: The Mysterious Fate of Lena Smith: Part Four

The Family Photo Album: The Family of G.H. Smith, ca. 1902

home of GH Smith

George Henry and Mary Lucinda (Rauch) Smith and their children, about 1902.  From L to R: Clara Viola Smith, Wilhelmina “Minnie” Smith, mother Mary Lucinda (Rauch) Smith holding baby Harvey Smith, Dan Smith, Harry Smith, Mary Magdalena “Lena” Smith and father George Henry Smith.

The Mysterious Fate of Lena Smith, Part Two

What was Lena doing in Boston?  Unfortunately, this was not handed down as part of the family story.  Some speculation is possible, at least.

Lena seems to have been quite an intrepid young woman.  Having grown up in small town Ohio, she traveled nearly 800 miles to the brand new world of golden-age Boston in order to forge her own way.  Perhaps, like so many of us in our teenage years, she chafed under the perceived dictatorial rule of her parents and stifling expectations of the community in which she had grown to adulthood.  Maybe she was attracted by the bright lights of the big city.  She might even have traveled to further her education, though options were somewhat limited for those of her sex at the time.

Even her hairstyle (seen here) can be viewed as an indication of the kind of young lady she was.  Short hair on a woman was far from the norm.  In fact, it was considered to be less of a fashion statement and more of a political one.

In a syndicated article that appeared in the Fort Wayne Journal-Gazette on 27 March 1916, journalist Nixola Greeley-Smith documented the movement toward short hair for women:

Mrs. Charlotte Perkins Gilman has called public attention to the fact that more and more women are cutting their hair short after the manner of men. “It was not the Lord who gave men short hair,” observed Mrs. Gilman, in ridiculing man’s claim to the exclusive privilege, “it was the scissors.”

“Men have a habit of seizing upon everything comfortable and calling it masculine. They stole women’s right to short hair as they stole her right to wear trousers…and as they stole her right to the vote.”1

This association of bobbed hair with women’s suffrage makes repeated appearances in newspapers across the country, including in an article published in the Sikeston Standard (Sikeston, Missouri) in March, 1917:

SUFFRAGETTES CUT HAIR

Woman Displays Clipped Locks At Headquarters Of Congressional Union.

Washington, D. C., March 20.–For many years the lobby in Washington was noted for the short haired women and long-haired men, who frequented the corridors of the Capitol and tried to put through all kinds of freak legislation. It seems now as if the short-haired woman, at least, was about to return. The fashion was started at the headquarters of the Congressional Union, than which there is no more vigorous lobby anywhere, when Mrs. Jessie Hardy Stubbs Mackaye took off her hat with a flourish and disclosed thick clipped black locks, curling a la Mrs. Vernon Castle about her neck and ears.

The locks were amputated, it was explained, because in this shape it is not only easier to manage, but more sanitary and sensible than the long, hair-pinned locks which heretofore have been considered the crowning glory of woman, save in the ranks of the old-time lobbyists like Dr. Mary Walker, who not only have worn short hair for many years, but has worn trousers as well.

It was said at Congressional Union headquarters that more than fifty prominent suffragists were in favor of the new hair cut, provided proper dispensations from their husbands were forthcoming. However, Mrs. Mackaye was still alone in her bobbed-hair glory tonight.2

All of this makes me very curious to know whether Lena was, in fact, involved in the women’s suffrage movement.  One way or another, she was likely quite foreward-thinking and obviously brave enough to sport her short hairstyle regardless of the opinions of those around her.

Do any of you out there know whether there are resources I might use to find out if Lena was a suffragette in Boston?

Next Time: The Mysterious Fate of Lena Smith: Part Three

 


1 Greeley-Smith, Nixola. “Short Hair for Women! The Slogan Now; Many Lead in New Fashion,” Fort Wayne Journal-Gazette (Fort Wayne, IN), 27 Mar 1916, p 7 col 5.
2 “Suffragettes Cut Hair,” Sikeston Standard (Sikeston, MO), 23 Mar 1917, p 8 col 7.

Stanley Robert Smith: The Ohio State Reformatory

mansfield reformatory
http://www.ohiomemory.org/cdm/compoundobject/collection/p267401coll36/id/13882/rec/5

Some of you are probably thinking that the Ohio State Reformatory sounds vaguely familiar.  That could be for a couple of reasons:

  1. The location is apparently considered to be extremely haunted.  The Travel Channel show, Ghost Adventures, filmed an episode there.  After the reformatory closed in 1990, the state planned to have the building torn down, but public outcry resulted in the formation of the Mansfield Reformatory Preservation Society.  The group has renovated portions of the building and now operates a regular tour schedule, including an overnight public ghost-hunt.
  2. The Ohio State Reformatory was used as a set for several movies, including Air Force One and The Shawshank Redemption.

Despite its current status as a tourist destination, it held far less attraction for Stanley Smith and his fellow inmates.

historic_ohio_state_reformatory_cell_blocks
Cell Blocks at Ohio State Reformatory (http://www.destinationmansfield.com/what-to-do/attractions/ohio-state-reformatory)

The reformatory opened in 1896 with the purpose of housing young offenders with no previous criminal record.  The boys would receive a high-school education, training in a trade, and religious instruction–essentially giving them all the tools that were, at the time, considered necessary to function normally in society.

Despite these good intentions, it wasn’t long before reality sank in.  By the time Stanley Smith arrived at the Ohio State Reformatory, the number of men incarcerated there was nearly double that that the facility had been designed for.  Similar concerns of overpopulation were experienced at other prisons around the state, including the nearby Ohio State Penitentiary.

By 1935, an Ohio government survey determined that the total excess population at correctional institutions around the state had reached 3,000.  The senate was panned for ” ‘short sighted economy’ in allowing ‘bad health conditions, overcrowding, idleness and unskilled mass treatment’.” 1

It was into this environment that Stanley stepped in April 1929.  No doubt he was considered a bit of a tough guy back in Findlay; at least that seems to have been what he was going for, with his rapid succession of criminal acts over the previous month.  However, it seems unlikely that any 19 year old boy could have been prepared for the experiences he would have over the next two years.

On the evening of April 21, 1930, a year after Stanley was sent to the reformatory, a fire broke out at the Ohio State Penitentiary.    Doors in two of the cell blocks, G and H, remained locked for twenty minutes after the discovery of the fire. 2   Over three hundred prisoners died, still locked in their cells.  Multiple investigations found that every victim could have been saved if guards hadn’t hesitated to release them.

In the aftermath of the disaster, many prisoners at the penitentiary refused to cooperate with guards, calling for the removal of the warden.  Extra guards were called into service.  Prior to this point, only 337 guards were on duty at a time, supervising 4,300 prisoners. 3    It was feared that a general escape attempt was looming.

Three hundred hardened criminals from the Penitentiary, including several of the ringleaders of the post-fire riots, were transferred to the Reformatory.  They were initially mixed in with the general population, but the spirit of unrest was contagious.  The men refused to work, yelling and jeering at guards and mocking a visiting penal reform committee sent by the governor.  At one point, a number of prisoners began to attack the doors and walls of their cells.  A riot was narrowly avoided.  The reformatory superintendent, T. C. Jenkins, clearly feared the general trend.  He requested a rush order of machine guns, tear gas bombs, and ammunition, as well as additional guards and machine gunners. 4

By mid-June 1930, the number of prisoners transferred from the state penitentiary had reached 430, but this point they were all housed in a separate portion of the reformatory.  Unfortunately, it seems that the damage had been done.  On the 12th of June, a situation arose as the two thousand young men entered the dining hall for their evening meal.  The shouting and throwing of chairs ended with several inmates being beaten into submission by guards.  Reports do not mention what proportion of the prison population was actively involved in the rioting. 5

The whole experience must have been terrifying.  How would Stanley react?  Would he be scared straight, or would the Ohio State Reformatory be his “crime school”? 6

Next Time:  Free At Last!


1 “Penal Units in Ohio Rapped as Crime Schools,” Lima News (Lima, Ohio), 3 Oct 1935, p 10, col 1.
2 Henry W. Sharpe, “Investigate Ohio Penitentiary Fire,” Olean Times (Olean, New York), 23 Apr 1930, p 1 col 8.
3 “Ohio Prison Fire Dead Set at 317; Start Investigation,” Bluefield Daily Telegraph (Bluefield, WV), 23 Apr 1930, p 1, col 1.
4 “Convict Revolt Threatens at Mansfield,” Elyria Chronicle-Telegram (Elyria, Ohio), 17 May 1930, p 1, col 2.
5 “Unruly Convicts Struck By Guards,” Findlay Morning Republican (Findlay, Ohio), p 1, col 4.
6 “Penal Units”, p 10, col 1.

Stanley Robert Smith: Frequent Flier Miles

The police were probably getting pretty sick of seeing Stanley’s face by now.  After somehow escaping prosecution twice over, he was back in the city jail for the third time in two weeks.

After stealing butter from the Findlay Dairy Company, Stanley had gone around town to various grocers, trying to sell on his ill-begotten goods.  On one such outing, he visited Jacob Frank, a man in his early seventies, at his shop on West Front Street.

Frank refused to purchase Stanley’s purloined products and, either in a fit of pique or unable to resist an opportunity,  Stanley stole one of Mr. Frank’s checks while the man was not looking.

All in the Family

Surprisingly, Jacob Frank was also a relative. 

Stanley’s sister, Clara Viola Smith, my great-grandmother, was married to Oliver Martin Arras. 

Oliver’s mother, Johanna, was born a Crates. 

Her father, Gottlieb, was the son of Johann Michael and Sibylla (Zehnder) Kroetz. 

Gottlieb’s younger sister, Caroline, married Johann Jakob Frank in their hometown of Oberurbach on August 28, 1859, a year after Gottlieb had left for America. 

Caroline and Johann Jakob’s son, Jacob Frank, emigrated to Findlay around twenty years later and established his grocery store.

If that all made about as much sense as trying to nail Jell-O to a tree, check out the chart below to clarify:relationship to jacob frank

All of this means that Jacob Frank, the victim of Stanley’s theft, was his sister’s husband’s first cousin, one time removed. 

While it is possible that Oliver and Clara were unaware of Oliver’s relationship to Jacob Frank, it is rather unlikely.  At least two of Oliver’s Crates uncles, Charley and Monroe, remained in contact with the family in Oberurbach.  After World War I, when Germany was suffering so heavily, they sent money to keep their German relations afloat.  With letters going back and forth so long after Gottlieb and Caroline had left their homeland, it seems unlikely that their children and grandchildren would be oblivious of one another’s lives in the same city.

With Obvious Regret

On February 20th–Yes, you read that right.  The same day Stanley must have been released from jail after his arrest on the bad check charges.  So much for remorse!–Stanley, the old charmer, wrote out a check in the amount of $19.10 to be cashed by “Lester Smith”.  He forged Jacob Frank’s signature and took the check to a bank to be cashed.

It all could have ended there, as the bank refused to cash the questionable check.  Instead, “Lester” handed the check over to a friend, who had it cashed at Bazley Market.

Bazley Market

bazley market location
The location of Bazley Market, now occupied by the Bistro on Main (seen here in October 2015)

Bazley Market, located at 407 South Main Street in Findlay, opened in mid-October 1928.  It was one of a chain of meat markets across the Midwest, owned and operated by Bazley Markets of Chicago, Illinois.  Given their ability to purchase meat in large quantities, the chain was able to keep prices low.  As a result, the Bazley Market in Findlay was open until at least 1969.

201708032133033035
A delightful array of products available for purchase on 22 Jan 1929 (Findlay Morning Republican)

 

Stanley was arrested the 27th of February, accused of the crime of forgery.  This time he would not escape the swiftly turning wheels of justice.  The following day he was bound over to the grand jury by Mayor Groves.

ESBA LINCOLN GROVES
Esba Lincoln Groves, who served six terms as mayor of Findlay, Ohio, between 1909 and 1932 (Photo from: http://politicalstrangenames.blogspot.com/2016/08/esba-lincoln-groves-1861-1939.html)

Unable to pay his bond of $1,000–an unimaginable amount of money for the man who couldn’t drum up $3 at the drugstore–he was transferred to the Hancock County jail.

Next Time:  The Hancock County Jail