Chance Finds: A Story With A-Peel

From the Boston Daily Globe, 26 Sep 1917, p1:

CROWD WALLOWS IN FREE BANANAS

Overripe Cargo Arrives in Fruit Steamer

Company Required to Distribute Under Appeal to Hoover

Boston and vicinity never saw such a banana craze as prevailed yesterday and it probably never will again, for the United Fruit Company gave away, to all who were willing to receive, the entire cargo of one of its steamships that arrived Monday from Central America laden with 27,000 bunches, approximating 3,000,000 bananas.

All the afternoon and the greater part of the night men, women and children of the North End, to say nothing of thousands from more or less distant sections of Greater Boston, crowded the freight shed on Long Wharf, in many cases wallowed in slush composed of rotten bananas, up to their ankles.

They fought and struggled for the possession of tempting looking bunches of the yellow fruit, which in a majority of cases, after they had been obtained fell all to pieces within half a minute, leaving only a bare stem to be mourned over.  The fruit was over-ripe, and that was why it was given away.

Boiler Breaks Down

It all came about through one of the boilers of the steamship having become inoperative for awhile during her last trip to Central America, so disarranging the refrigerating plant that the temperature in her hold on the way to Boston with her banana cargo ranged from 80 to 90 degrees instead of about 55, the needed temperature for delaying the ripening of bananas.

When the hold was opened Monday, at Long Wharf, the cargo was found apparently dead ripe instead of green, as it should have been, in order to be saleable, for that fruit is always ripened artificially after it has reached the dealer’s hands.  Not only was it nearly all ripe, but much of the cargo in the lower hold had been reduced to a state comparable with thick pea soup.

Vice Pres Eugene W. Ong of the United Fruit Company said last evening that the fruit was so soft and its tendency to rot so rapid, after it is once started, that he appealed to the Board of Health for its opinion as to dumping the whole cargo overboard, feeling sure that none of it would last long enough to be of practical use to any one.

Some Called Fit for Food

“For many years,” said he, “we have given strict orders to all our managers throughout the country never to destroy any fruit until the local health officials have declared it unfit for food.  So we followed that rule in the present case.

“An inspector from the Boston Board of Health after looking over the cargo gave it as his opinion that much of the cargo was fit for food.  Ripening bananas generate a great deal of gas, which it is necessary to constantly release from a ship’s hold, and as our defective refrigerating plant had not allowed the release of that gas in this case, we were afraid the edibility of the fruit might have been seriously affected by the gas.  We had no desire to poison anybody.

“For that reason we asked W. W. Paine of the Boston branch of the Agricultural Department at Washington to test the fruit which was not entirely spoiled, which he did, giving the opinion that it was not injured.

“Thereupon we called up the city authorities and notified them that the municipal institutions could have all the bananas they chose to take away from the wharf.  A general invitation to the public to the same effect was also issued.

Fruit Sent to the Camps

“We sent eight carloads of the fruit to different military camps in this State today and notified the Navy Yard and harbor forts to come and get all they wanted.

If they do not arrive there in a condition fit to eat, it will not be our fault, as we have made no pretense of being able to guarantee their quality.”

On hearing of the company’s proposition to the Board of Health that it be permitted to dump the entire cargo overboard, Mayor Curley telegraphed to Food Administrator Hoover at Washington that the fruit company had asked the Board of Health to condemn its entire cargo and allow it to be dumped into the sea, whereas the Board of Health claimed the fruit was fit for the market. The Mayor added: “I believe this an attempt to destroy food in order that high prices may be maintained. What do you advise?”

Vice Pres Ong of the fruit company last evening characterized the Mayor’s telegram as “a political play,” entirely unwarranted by facts. The cargo if marketable was worth about $30,000 and it cost about $2500 to unload and distribute the fruit even if given away. The latter sum would have been saved if the dumping was at sea.

Could Have Dumped Outside

“If our intention in seeking to dump the fruit overboard had been to maintain prices,” said Mr. Ong, “we cold have dumped it before coming into port, or we could have kept it on board the steamer till Thursday, when she sailed again, and have dumped it as soon as she got outside the harbor. Our good intentions are manifested in our asking the judgment of the local Board of Health.”

The extent to which average humanity will go for the sake of getting something for nothing was never better illustrated than by the thousands of people who fought and scrambled in mud and slush for many hours to get a bunch of bananas, which if in marketable condition, was worth about $1.50 at wholesale.

The early comers, about noontime, had an easy time, as hundreds of bunches were stacked within the freight shed. Those early callers fared best, for the fruit they obtained had been on the upper deck and parts of the bunches were still green, making it possible to ripen them naturally at home.

But the farther down in the ship the stevedores went, the worse the condition of the cargo, the lower strata being reduced to absolute slush. About one bunch in 10 of the upper cargo would be green or partly so, and for their possession natives of sunny Italy who were experts, fought vigorously.

Came With Trucks

At no time was there much less than 1000 persons scrambling about the open ports of the steamship, where the incessant shouting and yelling made a pandemonium. Moreover, wagons, automobiles and auto trucks were backed up in a long row close to the steamer, loading up in some cases for the benefit of municipal or suburban charitable institutions, though some drivers frankly confessed that they were there from no such altruistic motive.

One Italian had a load that must have aggregated about 10,000 bananas, which took him hours to solicit from the distributers. Even the familiar Fish-Pier jitney buss called for a load which was said to be destined for the poor children of Somerville. Another big load was taken away in an undertaker’s auto.

At nearby street corners all the evening automobiles, occupied by well-dressed persons, waited while one of the number spent an hour or more getting one, two or three bunches of the yellow fruit to take home as proud trophies.

Other bunches were wheeled homeward in baby carriages, toy carts or wheelbarrows or hand carts, while hundreds were satisfied with a quantity of the fruit tied up in a large bandana handkerchief, a newspaper, a school book strap, a meal bag or a leather handbag.

May Be Dangerous Eating

Officials of the Fruit Company last evening expressed some fear as to the effect of a free indulgence in that particular cargo of bananas on the stomachs of the recipients. Even such of the fruit as looked inviting had never properly ripened, but rotted while still green, owing to the intense heat of the ship’s hold.

Vice Pres. Ong telegraphed to Food Administrator Hoover, [anent?] an earlier telegram of Mayor Curley, last night, reciting the foregoing facts and denying any attempt to maintain high prices by du[m]ping a cargo overboard.

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The Mysterious Fate of Lena Smith: Part Five

Unfortunately, it is very likely that the story that appeared in the Boston Daily Globe1 was not entirely truthful.  At no point was the severity of Lena’s condition in doubt.  The poison she had taken, mercury bichloride, was well known and highly toxic.

Mercury bichloride, also known as corrosive sublimate, is an extremely poisonous mercury salt with the chemical formula HgCl2. Currently, it is a highly restricted substance, utilized in the manufacture of PVC and as a depolarizer in batteries.2

However, during Lena’s lifetime, it was frequently used in households across the country.  Agricultural columns in newspapers recommended using a dilute solution to disinfect tools after removing diseased portions of trees affected by blight, in order to avoid spreading contagion to healthy limbs.3 A few tablets of bichloride of mercury dissolved in a bottle of alcohol created a remedy for bedbugs.4 For cleaning a sick room or disposing of the “bodily discharges” of an ill person, a solution containing one teaspoon of corrosive sublimate and one teaspoon of permanganate of potash per gallon of fresh water was advised. Diluted by half, this fluid could be used to cleanse the hands.5

corrosive sublimate
Pharmaceutical Label (found on Flickr: <https://www.flickr.com/photos/hadesigns/2275933529&gt; )

Given all these legitimate uses, it was not difficult for the average Joe to obtain mercury bichloride tablets. All he had to do was walk in to his local drugstore and request them.

And purchase them, he did.  Following a highly publicized case of accidental poisoning in 1913, there was a significant upswing in the number of suicides in which corrosive sublimate was the method used.

In an issue of the Archives of Internal Medicine, a peer-reviewed medical journal, published in November 1915, two New York doctors examined the frequency of these cases.  According to their article, 155 suicides by mercuric chloride had been recorded in the previous 25 years.  Nearly one-half of those incidents (73) had occurred during the two years since the notorious Walker case.6

corrosive sublimate 2
Atlanta Constitution, 25 May 1913, p 19 col 4

Perhaps more realistic coverage of his gruesome death would have deterred copycats.  Instead, newspaper articles glorified his drawn-out passing:

BANKER CHEERFUL IN FACE OF DEATH

Poisoned Macon Man Sinks Into Unconsciousness.

TRIES TO COMFORT WIFE.

Sensation of Dying Not as Unpleasant as Pictured, He Tells Her Ere Stupor Comes.

Macon, Ga., May 22. — B. Sanders Walker, the young Macon banker, whose remarkable fight against death from bichloride of mercury poisoning has puzzled physicians, lapsed into unconsciousness.

His physicians believe he will probably die in this condition. He had been conscious since taking the poison by mistake a week ago.

“If this be dying, then none need fear its terrors.”

Walker had made this characteristically cheerful reflection earlier as he vainly begged his nurse to tell him exactly what had been said at a conference of physicians in a corner of his bedchamber.

Walker had begged his physicians to allow him to talk with him family and friends. He said he had no fear of ill consequences. To his wife, struggling bravely to bear up, Walker constantly offered words of encouragement.

“The sensation of dying is not as unpleasant as it is generally pictured,” he told her.

Tuesday night Walker’s physicians believed the end was near. The patient, however, steadily assured them he was determined to live. After an all-night fight with death Walker rallied slightly.

Although warned from the first that death undoubtedly awaited him. Walker consistently maintained buoyant spirits. He had rallied again Wednesday and was the least perturbed of any in his room then.

While conscious and suffering little or no discomfort, he has been unable to grasp the situation which physicians said confronted him. The slow work of the deadly poison had failed to shake Walker’s belief that he would recover. His high spirits, it is believed, had much to do with his resisting the effects of the drug.

While unable to fully account for Walker’s remarkable vitality, some of the physicians partly attributed his successful resistance to the poison to the fact that he emitted a portion of the bichloride of mercury tablet soon after it was swallowed.

It was this which alarmed the banker and caused him to call a physician, who rushed to the Walker home and pumped out the contents of the banker’s stomach. The physician’s arrival, however, was not before the poison had taken sufficient effect to paralyze the kidneys.

All of the members of Walker’s immediate family are gathered at his home. Every precaution is being taken to prevent the patient from becoming unduly excited. Only his wife, the attending physician and nurses are permitted to enter his room.

Telegrams containing suggestions for treatment still are being received at the Walker home from every section of the country.7

Reading this article, one would think that after taking mercury bichloride, you might float painlessly off to a peaceful oblivion, lingering just long enough for loved ones to fawn over you, regretting any moment they might have caused you pain.  As Lena would discover, this notion could not be further from the truth.


1 “Lena Smith, Discouraged, Takes Poison Tablets”, Boston Daily Globe, 21 Sep 1917, p 4 col 2.
2 “Mercury(II) chloride,” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Mercury(II)_chloride&oldid=802982285&gt; (accessed 8 Oct 2017).
3 “Fire Blight,” Las Cruces Rio Grande Republican, 20 Jul 1915, p 3 col 4.
4 “How to Get Rid of House Pests,” Altoona Mirror (Altoona, PA), 22 Jul 1915, p 3 col 3.
5 “How to Disinfect a Room After Contagious Diseases,” Danville Republican (Danville, IL), 25 Jan 1917, p 4 col 3.
6 Southern Medical Journal, Vol. 9 Issues 1-6. Southern Medical Association: 1916. Treatment of Poisoning by Mercuric Chlorid, p 279. <https://books.google.com/books?id=ZlA9AQAAMAAJ&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false&gt;
7 “Banker Cheerful in Face of Death,” Gettysburg Times, 22 May 1913, p 2 col 6.

The Family Photo Album: Lucia Arras and Friends

childhood friends

The photo above shows my grandmother, Lucia Arras (second row without a doll), and her little sister Jeanne (second row left) with several childhood friends.  For the longest time, we didn’t know who the other people were in this picture.  Then, several years ago, my mom posted it online and someone came forward with the missing information.

Not only that, but she had another photo taken the same day!

childhood friends 2

Going back to the original photo, the other girl in the second row, Mary Etta Waltermire, was my grandma’s neighbor across the street.  The three remaining children in the photo were Mary Etta’s cousins, who were visiting from Toledo, just under 50 miles away.  Josephine and Mary Lou are seated in the bottom row and George, of course, is clowning away at the top.  Isn’t he hilarious?!  Pulling faces in both pictures, like you’d expect of a boy that age.

The funniest part was finding out who else Mary Lou, George, and Josephine were related to.  Mary Etta was their cousin through their mother, Alma Irene Cessna.  Her sister, Gytanna Cessna, had married Orville Waltermire.

Alma Irene Cessna’s husband was named Harold Clyde Benington.  His brother, Ralph Orlando Benington, who I’ve written about here, was my grandpa’s father.  Mary Lou, George and Josephine were Lucia’s future husband’s first cousins!

She would not meet their cousin, her husband, Clark, until high school.

I wonder whether Grandma and Grandpa ever recognized the connection!

The Mysterious Fate of Lena Smith: Part Four

According to his WWI draft card1, Officer John Marena was based out of Station 10 in Roxbury.  As part of the Historic American Buildings Survey, the Library of Congress holds photographs of the old station building2, which was one of the first municipal buildings constructed after the annexation of Roxbury in 1868.

station 10
Station 10, located at 1170 Columbus Avenue, Roxbury, Massachusetts

The station was located on Columbus Avenue, between the intersection with Tremont Street (William Pynchon Square) and that with Roxbury Street (Hanley Square).3

police station no 10

The station was just under a mile from Lena’s apartment, along Tremont Street and Huntington Avenue.

huntington-to-station-101.png

While police cars were in use in some parts of the country at this time, it is just as likely that Officer Marena might have been on horseback or even on foot.

Perhaps his mode of transportation was the reason that he directed Lena to the City Hospital, rather than taking her there himself.4  She may have taken a taxi or the electric streetcar the two and a half miles to City Hospital.

huntington to hospital

A recording of a streetcar journey through Boston, including part of Huntington Avenue, in 1903 is available to view on YouTube:

It is perhaps more likely that an ambulance was called.  Both the police force and the hospital itself had ambulances available for transport of patients.5

boston city hospital ambulance
“Taking Patient from Ambulance”, ca 1920. Boston City Hospital collection, Collection 7020.001, City of Boston Archives, Boston

Typically, at this period in time, the patient would receive no medical care prior to arrival at the hospital.  Those individuals hired to drive the ambulances were given no medical training.  A simple communication system existed, by which a call was made from the front gate of the hospital as the ambulance arrived.  A doctor would be summoned to meet the incoming ambulance when it pulled up to the building.6

Boston City Hospital, seen below, was built in the early 1860s on the site of the Agricultural Fair Grounds on the South End of Boston.  The location was not ideal, as the land flooded at high tide.  A massive amount of gravel was carted in to the site in order to raise the average ground level by seven feet.7

boston city hospital
Boston City Hospital in 19038

The hospital was originally founded to provide medical care to those stricken by poverty, who could not otherwise afford treatment.  Paying patients were, of course, also accepted.  Semi-private rooms and other services not typically provided by the hospital required payment.  Most patients were housed in wards like that seen below:

female ward
“Female Ward”, Boston City Hospital collection, Collection 7020.001, City of Boston Archives, Boston

It was here, in a ward like this, that Lena likely found herself on the night of September 20, 1917. And here where, no doubt to her great relief, she was informed that her condition was not considered serious.9


1 “U.S. World War I Draft Registration Cards, 1917-1918,” digital image, Ancestry.com (http://www.ancestry.com : accessed 5 October 2017), Suffolk County, Massachusetts, Dorchester City, Draft Board 21, John Vernal Marena entry, dated 12 September 1918; citing Selective Service System. World War I Selective Service System Draft Registration Cards, 1917-1918. Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration. M1509, 4,582 rolls.
2 Cheek, Richard. Police Station No. 10, 1170 Columbus Avenue, Boston, Suffolk County, MA. October 1979. Photograph. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. Accessed 3 Oct 2017. <http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/ma1206/&gt;
3 Bromley, George Washington, and Walter Scott Bromley. Atlas of the City of Boston: Roxbury. G.W. Bromley and Co., 1915.
4 “Lena Smith, Discouraged, Takes Poison Tablets”, Boston Daily Globe, 21 Sep 1917, p 4 col 2.
5 “A History of the Boston City Hospital from its Foundation Until 1904”. Boston: Municipal Printing Office, 1906.
6 Weaver, Jay. “The Origins of the City of Boston Ambulance Service.” 13 Oct 2013. <https://www.facebook.com/notes/boston-ems-incidents/the-origins-of-the-city-of-boston-ambulance-service-by-former-boston-paramedic-j/564361816970965/&gt;
7 “A History of the Boston City Hospital”.
8 E. Chickering & Co. Boston City Hospital, Harrison Ave., Boston, Mass. 1903. Photograph. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. Accessed 5 Oct 2017. <http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2007661080/&gt;
9 “Lena Smith, Discouraged, Takes Poison Tablets”.

The Mysterious Fate of Lena Smith: Part Three

Lena’s death record, seen below, listed her address as 873 Huntington Avenue.

lena smith death record

My sister and her husband, who live in Boston, were kind enough to visit the location so I could get a better idea of the surroundings.  The building in which Lena lived is still standing.  In 1917, the entrance was located within the lighter colored frame below:

873 huntington avenue

The entrances to both 873 and 877 have been closed off to create more living space.  Only a central door numbered 875 exists today, as seen in the following video (873 is on the right as the camera pans over the building):

It was from this doorway that, on the night of September 20, 1917, Lena burst forth:

About 10 o’clock last night Miss Lena Smith, aged 23, rushed from her room at 873 Huntington av, Roxbury, and stopped patrolman John Marena, exclaiming that she had swallowed three poison tablets.

Next Time: The Mysterious Fate of Lena Smith: Part Four

The Family Photo Album: The Family of G.H. Smith, ca. 1902

home of GH Smith

George Henry and Mary Lucinda (Rauch) Smith and their children, about 1902.  From L to R: Clara Viola Smith, Wilhelmina “Minnie” Smith, mother Mary Lucinda (Rauch) Smith holding baby Harvey Smith, Dan Smith, Harry Smith, Mary Magdalena “Lena” Smith and father George Henry Smith.

The Mysterious Fate of Lena Smith, Part Two

What was Lena doing in Boston?  Unfortunately, this was not handed down as part of the family story.  Some speculation is possible, at least.

Lena seems to have been quite an intrepid young woman.  Having grown up in small town Ohio, she traveled nearly 800 miles to the brand new world of golden-age Boston in order to forge her own way.  Perhaps, like so many of us in our teenage years, she chafed under the perceived dictatorial rule of her parents and stifling expectations of the community in which she had grown to adulthood.  Maybe she was attracted by the bright lights of the big city.  She might even have traveled to further her education, though options were somewhat limited for those of her sex at the time.

Even her hairstyle (seen here) can be viewed as an indication of the kind of young lady she was.  Short hair on a woman was far from the norm.  In fact, it was considered to be less of a fashion statement and more of a political one.

In a syndicated article that appeared in the Fort Wayne Journal-Gazette on 27 March 1916, journalist Nixola Greeley-Smith documented the movement toward short hair for women:

Mrs. Charlotte Perkins Gilman has called public attention to the fact that more and more women are cutting their hair short after the manner of men. “It was not the Lord who gave men short hair,” observed Mrs. Gilman, in ridiculing man’s claim to the exclusive privilege, “it was the scissors.”

“Men have a habit of seizing upon everything comfortable and calling it masculine. They stole women’s right to short hair as they stole her right to wear trousers…and as they stole her right to the vote.”1

This association of bobbed hair with women’s suffrage makes repeated appearances in newspapers across the country, including in an article published in the Sikeston Standard (Sikeston, Missouri) in March, 1917:

SUFFRAGETTES CUT HAIR

Woman Displays Clipped Locks At Headquarters Of Congressional Union.

Washington, D. C., March 20.–For many years the lobby in Washington was noted for the short haired women and long-haired men, who frequented the corridors of the Capitol and tried to put through all kinds of freak legislation. It seems now as if the short-haired woman, at least, was about to return. The fashion was started at the headquarters of the Congressional Union, than which there is no more vigorous lobby anywhere, when Mrs. Jessie Hardy Stubbs Mackaye took off her hat with a flourish and disclosed thick clipped black locks, curling a la Mrs. Vernon Castle about her neck and ears.

The locks were amputated, it was explained, because in this shape it is not only easier to manage, but more sanitary and sensible than the long, hair-pinned locks which heretofore have been considered the crowning glory of woman, save in the ranks of the old-time lobbyists like Dr. Mary Walker, who not only have worn short hair for many years, but has worn trousers as well.

It was said at Congressional Union headquarters that more than fifty prominent suffragists were in favor of the new hair cut, provided proper dispensations from their husbands were forthcoming. However, Mrs. Mackaye was still alone in her bobbed-hair glory tonight.2

All of this makes me very curious to know whether Lena was, in fact, involved in the women’s suffrage movement.  One way or another, she was likely quite foreward-thinking and obviously brave enough to sport her short hairstyle regardless of the opinions of those around her.

Do any of you out there know whether there are resources I might use to find out if Lena was a suffragette in Boston?

Next Time: The Mysterious Fate of Lena Smith: Part Three

 


1 Greeley-Smith, Nixola. “Short Hair for Women! The Slogan Now; Many Lead in New Fashion,” Fort Wayne Journal-Gazette (Fort Wayne, IN), 27 Mar 1916, p 7 col 5.
2 “Suffragettes Cut Hair,” Sikeston Standard (Sikeston, MO), 23 Mar 1917, p 8 col 7.